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The profile distribution of minerals within the solonetz in Yergeni

N. P. Chizhikova, N. B. Khitrov, E. B. Varlamov, N. A. Churilin

V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute, Russia, 119017, Moscow, Pyzhevskii per. 7-2

The mineralogical composition of clay (<1mm), fine (1–5 mm), medium (5–10 mm) silt and coarser fractions (>10 mm) of light fine solonchakous solonetz strongly salinized by sulphate-chloride highly calcareous with gypsum content light clay-light clay loamy-heavy clay loamy on the loess like clay loams (Chromic Calcic Gypsic Endosalic Solonetz (Albic, Episiltic, Epiclayic, Endoloamic, Columnic, Cutanic, Differentic)) located on the highest eastern part of Yergeni upland at about 70 km in the north from Elista (Kalmykia). The investigated profile is formed on the homogenous aeolian clay loam deposits. The elluvial and illuvial distribution of clay in the solonetz profile is accompanied by the changes in the ballance of clayey minerals in the above solonetzic and solonetzic horizon. The following processes occurwithin the SEL above solonetzic elluvial horizon: (1) the destruction of the mixed layer formations of mica-smectitic type with the residual preservation of mixed-layer chlorite-vermicullites in clay; (2) the relative accumulation of trioctahedrical micas within the clay; (3) the outflow of the clayey (<1mm) particles down the profile. Within the solonetzic BSN horizon the mixed layer mica-smectitic formations are formed with the high content of smectitic packages. Such an accumulation is a relative within the clay composition ,and it is absolute within the solonetzic horizon, comparing to the soil forming rock. The differentiation coefficient according to the mixed-layer formings is lower within the clay composition, however, it is higher within the composition of the soil in general, comparing to the clay illuviation degree. The silty fractions consist of quartz, plagioclases, potassium feldspars, and micas with the mixture of chlorite and caolinite. The increase of fraction’s amount is accompanied by the increase of the quartz content (from 20–27% in the fine silt fraction to 50–58% within the fraction of >10 mm), plagioclases (from 10–13% to 21–28%), potassium feldspars (from 9–13% to 15–20%), and the decrease of micas content (from 30–40% to 4–9%). The minerals distribution within the silt fraction along the solonetzes profile is relatively homogenous.

Keywords: mixed-layer formations, hydromicas, micas, quartz, plagioclases, clayey fraction, fine silt, medium silt, solonetz profile differentiation

DOI: 10.19047/0136-1694-2018-91-63-84

Citation: Chizhikova N.P., Khitrov N. B., Varlamov Ye.B., Churilin N.A. The profile distribution of minerals within the solonetz in Yergeni, Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin, 2018, Vol. 91, pp. 63-84. doi: 10.19047/0136-1694-2018-91-63-84


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